Nidec Copal RE12D Incremental Rotary Encoder

The Rotary Encoder series includes optical and magnetic encoders. Optical models run from φ 12 to φ 30 and include small, light weight, and low cost models, as well as high resolution, and manual setting models.


The Rotary Encoder series includes optical and magnetic encoders. Optical models run from φ 12 to φ 30 and include small, light weight, and low cost models, as well as high resolution, and manual setting models. These encoders can be used to sense the angle, size and rotation speed of industrial equipment, including industrial robots, numerically controlled (NC) machine tools, elevators, production equipment, terminals at financial institutions, computer peripheral equipment, etc. They can also be used as manual setting encoders for digital equipment, such as measuring, communications and medical equipment.


Optical encoders

The light from the LED which passes through the slit of the rotating disk actuates the photo-sensor. The output of the photo-sensor which is quasi-sinusoidal is shaped into square wave by the voltage comparator and fed into a logic circuit.

Magnetic encoders

Principle structure is composed of magnetic sensor and magnetic drum (corresponding to LED and photo-sensor in an optical encoder). Without power consuming LED, total dissipation power of the magnetic encoder is far less than that optical encode

Magnetic encoders
Magnetic encoders


Quasi-sinusoidal signal output (RE20F)

Output signals of the RE20F rotary encoders are direct signals from the photo-sensor in the quasi-sinusoidal wave form. An external circuit is therefore required to shape them into square wave signals. Fig. 3 shows the output amplitude variation (ripple), ΔEs which is defined as follows.

Square wave signal output

(REC16, RES16, RES20D, REC20D, RESW20D, RECW20D, RMS20, REC20, RES20B, REC20C, RE12D, RE30E)

Output signals of the series encoders are in the form of square waves and can be fed into a digital circuit directly
without an interface. There are three versions available, for 5 V output, 12 V output and 24 V output.


Output “Z” : This is an index output of one pulse per turn and is used as a reset signal or start signal. The encoders are so designed that there will be only one rising edge on CW rotation (falling edge on CCW rotation) in the output “B” during the time period when the output “Z” is “high”. Therefore, an ideal reference position signal can be obtained by getting the outputs “B” and “Z”.
Output “A” : This is a basic output and will give as many pulses per turn as the resolutinon.
Output “B” : This output is the same as the output “A” except that there is an electrical phase difference of 90° between the output “A” and “B” and is used to sense the direction of rotation.

The rotating direction is usually determined by sensing the signal level of the output “B” at the pulse edge of the output “A”.


The maximum operating speed of the encoders is given by the following formula.
Maximum speed (min-1) = Maximum frequency response (Hz) × 60/ Resolution (P/R)
Note) Encoders exceeding the above limit may be available on a special order basis.


Nidec Copal

Nidec Copal

NIDEC COPAL ELECTRONICS was established in April 1967 in Japan as a specialty manufacturer of electronics components. The company's philosophy remains unchanged - to be a supplier of high quality products while offering competitive prices. NIDEC COPAL ELECTRONICS began by developing a wirewound trimmer. This product was enthusiastically received by many sectors in the industry. The initial success of the trimmers laid the groundwork for future development of a wide selection of manufactured products that combined electronics at the start of the electronics revolution.

Later, robust sales of cermet trimmers led to the company's remarkable expansion. Further development efforts led to the release of a succession of new product lines. These included a wide range of motors, encoders, switches and pressure sensors.


  • 12 mm, 2 phases square wave
  • High resolution 100 to 300 P/R
  • Low torque, low inertia
  • Cost effective
  • RoHS compliant


  • Input equipment for lmage simulation, e.g. CAD
  • Cursol position setting for wave observation of Oscilloscope etc.
  • Level settings for ultrasound imaging devices
  • For manual setting of broadcasting system, e.g. switcher


Electrical characteristics

Input voltageDC5 V ± 5 %
Input current50 mA maximum
Output wave formSquare ware
Output phasesA, B
Resolution (P/R)100, 200, 300
Phase difference of A & B outputs90° ± 45°
Maximum frequencies response10 kHz
Output signal“1 (High)”:+ 4.5 V minimum
“0 (Low)”:+ 0.5 V maximum
Output impedance1 kΩ
Light sourceLED

Mechanical characteristics

Starting torque0.05 mN·m {0.5 gf·cm} maximum
Inertia0.01 g·cm2
Shaft loading
(When mounting)
Radial,Axial:1.96 N {200 gf} maximum
Net weight10 g

Environmental characteristics

Operating temp. range0~50 °C
Storage temp. range-20~80 °C
Protection gradeIP40

Reliability test

Test itemTest conditions
VibrationPower OFFAmplitude : 1.52 mm or 98.1 m/s(10G) whichever is smaller.
10~500Hz excursion 5 min/cycle, 1 hour each for X, Y, Z, directions.
ShockPower OFF1 time each in 6 directions (X, Y, Z) at 490 m/s2(50 G), 11 ms.
High temperature
Power OFF80 °C  96h(To be measured after leaving samples for 1h at normal temperature and humidity after the test.)
Power ON50 °C  96h
Low temperature
Power OFF-20 °C  96h
Power ON0 °C 96h
HumidityPower OFF40 °C  Relative humidity 90〜95 %   96 h
(To be measured after wiping out moisture and leaving samples for 1h at normal temperature and humidity after the test.)
Thermal shockPower OFFTo be done 5 cycles with the following condition
(To be measured after leaving samples for 1 h at normal temperature and humidity after the test.)
70 °C  0.5 h、-20 °C  0.5 h


Part Number Designation


Series name

Resolution (P/R)

100, 200, 300

Output phase

2:“A” & “B”

Output phase “Z”


Rectangle shaping AMP&Input voltage

1:5 V

Output connection

1:Cable wire

List of Part Numbers

Part numberResolution
RE12D-100-201-1100 (P/R)
RE12D-200-201-1200 (P/R)
RE12D-300-201-1300 (P/R)

Additional Information


Output Circuit


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